Each cultural and historical epoch considers man and his place in the world in its own way.

Each cultural and historical epoch considers man and his place in the world in its own way.

The Church, having actually won political power with the help of religion, also tried to win the souls of the people. The morality of the Middle Ages was a clear manifestation of hypocrisy: on the one hand, it was a propaganda of humanistically oriented Christian morality, on the other – the real moral relations were very far from love of neighbor. Mercy, etc. Along with this, a significant positive role was played by knightly, noble codes of honor, which attributed the feudal lord to show loyalty to the suzerain and the “lady of the heart” honesty, justice, selflessness and other high moral qualities.

Renaissance morality played a significant role in the development of human civilization. It was a revival and conceptual birth of the humanistic content of morality. Realizing the true nature of its existence and feeling the taste of philanthropy, the morality of the Renaissance breaks with the medieval hypocrisy. This morality preaches the physical and spiritual perfection of man, the eternity of good and the transience of evil, the unshakable unity of word and deed.

From the New Age to almost the middle of the twentieth century. morality experienced various states of revival of its hypocrisy. Initially, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, morality condemned the parasitic way of life of the aristocracy and promoted diligence, thrift, modesty, and honesty as positive norms and principles. The moral ideal of that time was an energetic, business man who in any way achieves success, brotherhood and respect of compatriots. This morality was based on human heroism and his ability to sacrifice.

However, in the XIX – XX centuries. promised by the official morality of various social systems, the realm of reason and justice actually turned out to be the domination of the money bag, poverty, social disasters and diseases. The promised “bright” and “rich” future was drowned in the embrace of spiritual degradation of the individual. The duplicity of morality became more and more present. Man began to gradually lose his moral orientation, the need to verify their actions on the model, began to be guided by certain, mis delineated needs and interests.

Today humanity is characterized by intensification of activity, growing interest in its future. Mankind’s fear of the future receded into the background, at least because the threat of nuclear military confrontation had virtually disappeared, and humanity had embarked on a transition from confrontation to cooperation.

This transition is possible and will become quite real when a new morality is formed and humanistically oriented principles of morality are realized, when new norms of morality will be models on the basis of these principles.

And these new rules should be:

virtue, conscience, truth, mercy, benevolence, fidelity to ideals, justice, decency, brotherhood, peace, diligence, equality, and freedom, a deep faith in the human ideal – human happiness.


Man in the world of culture. Abstract

The triad “culture – society – personality” is a socio-philosophical and culturological problem, which includes many aspects

The question of what role the individual plays in the culture of a historically specific society, how the interests of the individual and society, what was the attitude to man during this era, what is the role of the individual in cultural progress and so on.

A small child does not immediately come to realize his identity. And humanity has come a long way, separating themselves first from nature, and then proclaiming respect for another’s individuality, establishing a creative dialogue of dissimilar, separate people. Antiquity, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Enlightenment, XIX-XX centuries. – such stages of maturity of mankind.

Each cultural and historical epoch considers man and his place in the world in its own way. The worldview of antiquity was cosmogonic, that is, man was part of the world (space), part of the general harmony. The worldview of the Middle Ages was theocentric, it was believed that in the center of the world and above the world is God (theos). The man here is a servant of God. The culture of the Middle Ages is first and foremost a cult, and man is a servant of this cult. For the first time in the history of Western culture, Renaissance humanists proclaimed anthropocentrism (anthropos – man), put at the center of the world a personality that combines sensory, intellectual and creative principles.

A new stage in the self-knowledge of mankind is the Age of Enlightenment. For Herder, Kant, Hegel, man is interesting primarily as a subject of culture. Personality is the embodiment of a person’s creative orientation, and culture is the liberation of a person through creativity. Representatives of the romantic trend in the philosophy of the XIX century. (Johann Fichte, Friedrich Schelling, Friedrich Schlegel, etc.) proclaim the cult of personality, which is understood as a rare and exceptional creature with creative intuition. The ideas of the existentialist philosophers F. Kafka, L. Shestov, MO Berdyaev, and Zh-P are imbued with tragic humanism, the feeling of the pain of the human personality, and the loneliness of man in the world. Sartre, A. Camus.

Today, the concepts of “man” and “personality”, “individual” and “individuality” are distinguished. It is necessary to specify them and establish the relationship between them.

Man is the highest level in the development of living organisms on Earth, the subject of socio-historical activity and culture, that is, on the one hand, he is a biological being, on the other – the creator of a specific world, which is the result of creative activity of all mankind.

A child who has just been born, belonging to people, is not yet a person; she needs to become a person, to form personal qualities in herself. This requires certain biological, natural human qualities, without which the process of formation of personal qualities can not do. For example, mentally retarded patients, belonging to the human race, can not become individuals.

Personality is a stable system of socially significant features that characterize the individual, it is a product of social development and inclusion of individuals in the system of social relations through substantive activities.

Explaining the concept of “personality” through the concept of “man” we can say that a person is a person with a formed worldview (system of worldviews), self-awareness and the ability to creative self-realization through activity. Self-awareness is the consciousness and evaluation of a person himself as a subject of practical, cognitive, cultural activities, as a person. On the path of self-awareness as a person, a person is necessarily confronted with the definition of his identity, individuality, individuality (understood as singularity, uniqueness, exclusivity) and community, similarity to others.

An individual is a concept that indicates that a particular human being belongs to the human race. The concept of “individual” carries both a sign of the integrity of the subject, and the presence of special (individual) properties. But when we use the word “individual,” we are emphasizing generic traits rather than personal characteristics.

Thus, there are certain qualities that characterize a person’s personality, personality culture, the degree of his personality. Man is formed in a specific historical time. It, in turn, includes the whole “body of culture”, ie all previous experience, cultural tradition, general cultural atmosphere.

Cultural and historical qualities of the individual include the ability to judge as the basis of intellectual culture, moral reflection and conscience as mandatory components of the ethical culture of the individual, taste as a specific ability underlying the aesthetic culture of the individual and society, memory and tradition as a condition and the need for interpersonal communication, morality and law as regulations of human behavior and guarantors of their safety.

Being an affiliation, a part of individuals who communicate with each other, these qualities influence the creation of certain social institutions and become the engine and barometer of their development. Thus, morality, conscience, moral reflection are the basis of the legal system of society, the ability to judge ensures the development of science, taste affects the development of art.

The ability to judge can be defined as a person’s ability to act mentally, which expresses his attitude to a particular object, when a person in assessing the object connects their knowledge, doubts, experiences, confidence or faith. The ability to judge is the basis of moral reflection and the formation of taste.

Moral reflection is a qualitative characteristic of a person who is able to comprehend and evaluate his own actions. Moral reflection is a characteristic feature of a highly developed personality, because it is an expression of a person’s need for self-esteem (including in the form of self-punishment). The second component of moral reflection (in addition to the ability to judge) is conscience: the ability of the individual to exercise ethical self-control. Conscience becomes a decisive personal quality when a person finds himself in a situation of choice.

Characterizing a person, others almost always evaluate his tastes: “bad taste” “good taste” “bad taste”. Taste is a person’s ability to perceive and evaluate the aesthetic qualities of phenomena and objects and to distinguish the beautiful from the ugly.

Formed as a person, a person experiences many cultural influences. This is the experience of universal culture, and the specific historical time in which it lives, and the national cultural atmosphere, as its immediate cultural environment and the environment in which the awakening of man to cultural life.

The problem of defining the national character, deciphering the cultural gene pool of peoples is raised by the Enlightenment and continues to be relevant, multifaceted and unresolved to this day.

Every nation has a system of values ​​that defines and characterizes its way of life, forms typical for the representatives of this nation features of behavior and thinking, which underlie the creativity of this nation.

The concept of “national character” includes both mental features that distinguish the representatives of a given nation from other humanity, and a special composition of thinking, which is “read” in the culture of a given people. Thus, Goethe’s “Faust” was a reflection, on the one hand, of the spirit of the era, on the other – the German spirit.

There is a concept of ethnocultural stereotype as a generalized idea of ​​the typical features that characterize a nation. These are either auto-stereotypes (what people think about their people) or hetero-stereotypes (what people think about other peoples).